To maximize the efficient use of resources, MITI preferred to have competition limited to a small number of very large corporations. Within each group, members held each other's shares.
These findings have important policy implications for urban governance, infrastructure, labour and environmental policies, which are key issues for growth and development.
The greatest role of government was to help provide good economic conditions for business. In India and China, labour-intensive firms tend not to locate in mid-sized or large cities as compared to smaller ones, due to higher wages, training and attrition costs.
These networks allowed manufacturers to prevent price competition among retailers, to maintain high profit margins in the domestic market, and so to permit cutthroat competition in the international market.
As a result, the Japanese expansion began with a great part of Korea and China annexed, thus allowing the Japanese to secure strategic resources. The government pays only a partial sum of the management and operation costs percent of the cost for unemployment insurance and the other services concerning unemployment is covered directly out of the national treasury account.
The economy which slumped by 0. Unlike the U. When the economies are assessed in terms of purchasing power parity, the U. Increasingly, han authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts.
MITI and the Ministry of Finance encouraged the rationalization of firms and industries and guided the structural transformation of the economy.